• Friday, October 31, 2014
  • A program of IPS Inter Press Service supported by the Dutch MDG3 Fund

    RIGHTS: Engaging Men in Gender Equality Efforts

    By Fabiana Frayssinet
    RIO DE JANEIRO, Apr 2 (IPS) How many men work in day care centres,
    looking after children? How much paternity leave are men entitled to?
    How many government programmes to combat domestic violence include
    violent men themselves as part of the treatment?


    The ball is in the court of national governments, and it is up to them
    to answer these questions, according to participants at an international
    congress on gender equity.

    The first global symposium on Engaging Men and Boys to Achieve Gender
    Equity, being held from Monday, Mar. 30 to Friday, Apr. 3 arose, in
    fact, out of the deafening official silence on the matter, according to
    Marcos Nascimento, co-director of the non-governmental Promundo
    Institute.

    Over a decade after agreeing that men’s participation is essential
    for “overcoming gender inequalities,” governments do not
    appear to have fully taken this commitment on board, Nascimento said in
    an interview with IPS.

    Nascimento belongs to a network of NGOs that address masculinity from a
    feminist viewpoint, incorporating a gender perspective.

    Any such initiative is bound to “have greater scope” if it is
    backed by public policies, he said.

    The symposium was organised by the Promundo Institute and Instituto
    Papai (Daddy) of Brazil; the White Ribbon Campaign, based in Canada;
    Save the Children, an international organisation; MenEngage Global
    Alliance, a coalition of NGOs and United Nations agencies; and the
    United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).

    Promundo is working for parliamentary approval of a draft law to expand
    paternity leave for workers from the five days they are entitled to at
    present, to at least a month. Brazilian women workers already have the
    right to six months’ maternity leave.

    Paternity leave is essential for men to become involved in the care of
    their children, a role traditionally allocated to women, activists say.

    “If there are positive role models in a family for caregiving by
    fathers, in future men may turn out to be more gender-equitable,”
    Nascimento said.

    The symposium, which has drawn more than 450 representatives from 80
    countries, aims to establish dialogue between different actors, in order
    to define lines of action and foment knowledge and learning from
    initiatives that have already been implemented.

    “We are talking about co-responsibility, which is a key word
    nowadays,” said Minister Nilcea Freire of the Brazilian
    government’s Special Secretariat of Policies for Women (SPM).

    “Engaging men in the debate on equal opportunities for men and
    women means redistributing responsibilities, so that care-giving and
    household work no longer fall exclusively on women’s
    shoulders,” the minister told IPS.

    On the first day of the symposium, Freire launched a new pilot project
    on education and responsibility for men who have committed violence
    against women. Developed as part of public policies to combat gender
    violence, it is the first of its kind in this South American country of
    189 million people.

    The project is working initially with a group of 46 men who have
    assaulted women. Without doing away with the penalties under Brazilian
    law for crimes of violence, the new centre incorporates activities like
    group dynamics, workshops, and opportunities to reflect on the ideas and
    values that can lead to violence against women.

    Based in Nova IguaE7u, a poor district in Rio de Janeiro with high
    indices of violence against women, the programme is to be extended into
    other regions in the future.

    “The intention is to promote the men’s commitment to the
    development of new kinds of interpersonal relationships, and to avoid
    and prevent violent behaviour within the family,” Fernando Acosta,
    the creator of the initiative, told the symposium.

    “If men are part of the problem of violence against women, they
    must be part of the solution,” Nascimento remarked.

    A report presented by the Special Secretariat of Policies for Women
    indicates that in 2007, 5,760 women were victims of violence in this
    country, mainly at the hands of men.

    Debates are also taking place at the symposium along other lines
    regarded as having strategic importance for promoting gender equity,
    like men’s engagement in matters of sexual and reproductive health
    and the prevention and treatment of AIDS.

    Studies presented by UNFPA show that the social construction of
    masculinity is closely associated with risk-taking behaviour, creating
    “an environment where risk is acceptable and even encouraged for
    ‘real’ men.”

    A qualitative research project carried out in nine Latin American
    countries revealed that young men and boys aged 10 to 24 are “far
    more concerned with achieving and preserving their masculinity than
    their health.”

    This study, according to UNFPA, confirms that the dominant ideology
    underlying masculine attitudes can result in “earlier sexual
    initiation and more sexual partners,” less intimacy in sexual
    relationships and a reluctance to use condoms.

    The deputy director of UNFPA, Purnima Mane, said that views on
    masculinity need rethinking, not only because the behaviour of boys and
    men affects women and girls, but also because men and boys need to free
    themselves from oppressive and stereotyped expectations about their
    behaviour that are harmful to their own health and life, as well as the
    health and life of their male or female partners.

    These behaviours begin in the home, where parents assign girls
    “feminine” tasks – washing the dishes, cooking, cleaning,
    looking after the children 96 and give boys “masculine” ones
    - cutting the lawn, “using Daddy’s tools,” and going out
    on the streets at an earlier age.

    According to InE9s Alberdi, the executive director of the United
    Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), these social norms and
    attitudes should be included in reflections on masculinity, a concept
    traditionally framed “in relation to (assumptions about)
    women’s inferiority.”

    Alberdi, who is on her first visit to Latin America, launched the UNIFEM
    report “Progress of the World’s Women 2008/2009: Who Answers to
    Women?” in Rio. To encourage “positive” new concepts of
    masculinity in men and women, the thinking of boys and men about
    fatherhood needs to be focused on “caring, closeness and
    tenderness,” she told IPS.

    In Spain, Alberdi’s home country, the law provides for biological or
    adoptive fathers to take paternity leave of up to 10 weeks, out of the
    total of 16 weeks of statutory paid parental leave, she said. The first
    six weeks are compulsory maternity leave for women after giving birth,
    but the rest of the parental leave period can be freely distributed
    between the couple.

    The head of UNIFEM said another way that the state should be
    “accountable” to women is through “budgets with a gender
    perspective” that redirect public spending.

    She cited examples of health, education, agriculture and sanitation
    policies and small credit funds that are particularly aimed at women.

    Alberdi also emphasised the importance of having official data,
    statistics and indicators that are disaggregated by gender, as an
    information base for designing affirmative action in the future.

    In the political, labour and business worlds, Alberdi said it is
    necessary to adopt “quota” policies for women’s
    participation as a transitory measure designed to promote “a
    balance of power and responsibility” between men and women.

    On average, barely 18.4 percent of parliamentary seats are occupied by
    women worldwide. If the present rate of progress is maintained, it could
    take 40 years to achieve the “ideal balance” of between 40 and
    60 percent for either sex, she said.

    “Spontaneous change is slow,” so transitory measures like
    quotas are needed to accelerate the achievement of gender balance,
    Alberdi said.

    Women in positions of power would reinforce the future implementation of
    public policies with a gender perspective to create a more egalitarian
    society, she said, thus generating a virtuous cycle for a less machista
    and sexist society.

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