¿Femicidio, feminicidio? El genocidio necesita un nombre en América Latina

Posted on August 16, 2010.

unos_cuantos_piquetitos_frida_khalo_blog12agostoPor Diana Cariboni

Mi pregunta fue por qué en algunos países se llama femicidio y en otros feminicidio al asesinato de mujeres por razón de su sexo. Las feministas reunidas en San Salvador, en un taller organizado por el Comité de América Latina y el Caribe para la Defensa de los Derechos de la Mujer (Cladem), me mostraron que no era cuestión de una palabra u otra, sino una polémica no zanjada.

La palabra proviene del inglés “femicide”, concebido por feministas estadounidenses para referirse a los asesinatos de mujeres que forman parte del amplio esquema de la violencia de género. Pero su traducción simple a “femicidio” omite esas dimensiones, según la antropóloga y política mexicana Marcela Lagarde.

Lagarde acuñó e introdujo el feminicidio como delito en el Código Penal y la Ley General de Acceso de las Mujeres a Una Vida Libre de Violencia, vigente en México desde febrero de 2007, bajo la forma de “violencia feminicida”.

Dice la versión española del último glosario de género de IPS:

Se trata del asesinato de la mujer en razón de su género, por odio hacia las mujeres, por rechazo a su autonomía y su valor como persona o por razones de demostración de poder machista o sexista. El feminicidio incluye una connotación de genocidio contra las mujeres. Por esta razón se prefiere feminicidio a femicidio, un término que hace referencia a todos los homicidios que tienen como víctima a una mujer, sin implicar una causa de género.

Pero, desafortunadamente, la discusión no se termina allí. En Costa Rica se tipificó el delito de femicidio. En Chile se habla de hacer algo similar.

Las autoras de “Femicidio en Costa Rica 1990-1999”, Ana Carcedo y Montserrat Sagot, hablan de este crimen en su país y señalan:

“La muerte de mujeres a manos de sus esposos, amantes, padres, novios, pretendientes, conocidos o desconocidos no es el producto de casos inexplicables o de conducta desviada o patológica. Por el contrario, es el producto de un sistema estructural de opresión. Estas muertes son femicidios, la forma más extrema de terrorismo sexista, motivado, mayoritariamente, por un sentido de posesión y control sobre las mujeres”.

Y agregan que el término femicidio “remueve el velo oscurecedor con el que cubren términos ‘neutrales’ como homicidio o asesinato”. Más aún, dicen, el femicidio ha sido definido “como una forma de pena capital que cumple la función de controlar a las mujeres como género… una expresión directa de una política sexual que pretende obligar a las mujeres a aceptar las reglas masculinas y, por lo tanto, preservar el statu quo genérico”. Sí, suena como genocidio, genocidio de mujeres.

En este punto, a la gente de a pie se nos complica entender los matices entre uno y otro término. Y ya no sabemos si vale la pena la discusión.

Lo dijeron varias activistas en el taller de Cladem: no perdamos más tiempo en las sutilezas.

En Chile es una muerta por semana, en Uruguay, una por mes, y en Perú se registran 12 cada 30 días. En un solo lugar de México, la norteña ciudad de Juárez, unas 800 mujeres cayeron víctimas de crímenes machistas de inusitada saña, desde 1993. Así se convirtieron en emblema, aunque las cifras empalidecen ante Guatemala: más de 3.500 feminicidios en cinco años, unos 700 por año, más de uno al día… ¿Necesitamos una o muchas palabras, para ponerles fin?

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